Friday, May 22, 2020
Name: Scutellosaurus (Greek for little shield lizard); pronounced SKOO-tell-oh-SORE-us Habitat: Woodlands of southern North America Historical Period: Early Jurassic (200-195 million years ago) Size and Weight: About four feet long and 25 pounds Diet: Plants Distinguishing Characteristics: Small size; long tail; bony studs on back About Scutellosaurus One of the persistent themes of evolution is that large, imposing creatures descend from small, mouselike progenitors. Although no one would think of comparing Scutellosaurus to a mouse (it weighed about 25 pounds, for instance, and was covered with bony spikes), this dinosaur was certainly rodent-sized compared to its multi-ton armored descendants of the late Cretaceous period, such as Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus. Although its hind limbs were longer than its forelimbs, paleontologists believe Scutellosaurus was ambidextrous, posture-wise: it probably stayed on all fours while eating, but was capable of breaking into a two-legged gait when escaping predators. Like other early dinosaurs, Scutellosaurus was anatomically very similar to the prosauropods and small theropods that roamed the earth during the late Triassic and early Jurassic periods.
Friday, May 8, 2020
The United States economy is improving slowly, but surely. With the recent struggles in China, one would think that the United States economy would be affected, but it has not shown any signs of changes yet. The United States has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest national economy. Many other countries use the US dollar as their currency, making the U.S. dollar the Ã¢â¬Å"most used currency in international transactionsÃ¢â¬ . The United States has a mixed economy, which also means capitalism or a market system. A market system is characterized by a mixture of centralized government initiatives and decentralized actions taken by individuals and firms. Market systems consist of private property, freedom of enterprise, self-interest, competition, prices, technology, specialization, and use of money. There are two ways to view the economy, macroeconomics or microeconomics. Macroeconomics consists of the overall status of the economy, while microeconomics focuses specifically on a specific mark et within the economy. This paper will focus on the different macroeconomic variables within the current US economy. The different variables include: GDP (gross domestic product), unemployment rates, inflation rates, interest rates, money supply, personal income, personal saving, etc. Each of these variables plays a role in the economy, while some are more effective than others. Gross domestic product is the total market value of all goods and services produced annually in a nation. The real GDP is when GDP isShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Macroeconomic Shifts On The Ridge Tool Company Essay982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAny company can do well in a vacuum, free from the effects of the economy as a whole. While a firm can be successful with individual households, they are by no means exempt from the effect of macroeconomic shifts. 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The next section will identify the macroeconomic variables that currently impact cable operators and will compare two variables to two corresponding industry variables. The final section of the paper will identify some of the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. An external analysis of the industry will provide a clear picture of the environmentRead MoreA Report On The Supermarket Wars1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The main purpose of this report is to make references to significant microeconomic models, in order to explain the supply, Demand, Market equilibrium, price discrimination, and Opportunity rate as well as making references to important macroeconomic aims which can be described with some examples such as growth, Inflation, Unemployment, GDP, exchange rates and many more, this two business economic topics are very relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market as they represent the real-world meaning of the businessRead MoreThe Factors Affecting Unemployment : A Study Of Us Economy Essay1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAn Analysis of the Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Study of US Economy in 1985-2014 Introduction In the past few years, the US unemployment rate dynamically fluctuated: more than five millions jobs were cut in November 2008 due to economic crisis, but recently, the unemployment rate dropped by 0.3 point after eight years. Figure 1 revealed how the US unemployment rate fluctuated over the last three decades. On the other hand, one of the major signs of an economyÃ¢â¬â¢s health and the testimony of economicRead MoreQuestions On Arbitrage Pricing Theory1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesany specific sets of variables to be used, many different factors have been tested. Indeed, the biggest challenge of most studies has been identifying which factors to be used. Historically, most studies have relied on general economic theories or empirical observations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motivation (your take on the topic and the motive behind it) This study aims to add values in setting a priori in APT studies by regressing SP financial sectors returns data on various macroeconomic variables. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Brief summary
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The management process is responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. ELEMENTS OF PRODUCT KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s provide a such variety of food, their food is reliable. They are take care of providing a safe and healthy work environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Kellogs Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now Their food is good for health as well, which is the main point what makes product valuable to us. Core of product is benefit. Whatever is makes you satisfied is core benefits. Cornflakes is the actual product of kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, which is exist with the colour, style, branding, fashion, quality. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s cornflakes is the most valuable, reliable, and a very popular product which is makes us satisfied to buy it. In order to satisfied core benefits company create a product. Driving product is depending on process marketing. E. g. i buy cup of coffee, augment this cup with selave when it is hot. Augmented element cost money. Augment product is created with the customer care, finance, installation, service, delivery, warranties. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s cornflakes is also provide a customer care, it is affordable by every kind of people, we can buy it from every kind of shopping center and its widely available so easy to buy. TYPES OF PRODUCT Convection KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is available in every shopping centre it is a breakfast so people buy it regularly and it is low priced so everyone can buy it easily. It is widely available and often high brand loyalty which is kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. Speciality KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s corn flakes is available in all superstore so people can get it easily and in competition with other brand of product corn flakes is perfect and less frequent luxury purchases. This product has got a personal selling skills. On the pack of this product they give all the information so ustomer can get all information about needs / gather lots of information before buying. Shopping Relatively expensive with infrequent purchases. Usually occurring with customer knowledge in relation to the high market brands. In relation to kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s, this product is marketed within major superstores and has a variety of high competition with other known brands, e. g. Nestle. In this case, a high brand led would be cereals which would be aimed at certain customers for example weight watching customers. Unsought Distress purchases with little pleasure. Marketers need to make customers aware of where they are available to create preferences. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s have approached this by advertising and promoting different corn flakes e. g. chocolate flakes or honey coated flakes. For the selling of product of KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s we need to understand the customer behaviour. The behaviour includes what they may buy? Why do they buy? When do they buy? And where do they buy? The modal of customer buyer behaviour includes the 4ps where market stimulation occurs. Other market stimulations include; economic, technological, political and cultural. Consumer decision making For the consumer decision making first if all we need to know about the problem then search for the reason of that then alternative evolution then purchase evaluation so then we can get purchase decision and behaviour then we can get our post purchase evaluation. BRAND LOYALTY Brand attitude There are different types of attitude for different brands. When we see the corn flakes first of all we goe the brand kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s in our mind and it makes positive image in our mind, which is a very important thing for the product. Corn flakes is the very popular and reliable brand so people got a good image of this brand, so with the good and success image brand its create a positive brand attitude. Brand preference Why customer should buy that particular brand then the other brand it depend on the quality of brand, quantity of brand, prise of brand, dependability of brand. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s corn flakes is the more quality brand, very old and trustable, good quantity, affordable, so with this preferences customer buy this brand more then the other brand. Brand allegiance When customer get satisfied with the brand they will like some change with the same product then if they find it more dependable they will continue buy that brand over the long period of time. kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is the old and trustable brand. Customers are using this brand been long time so with focus on customer needs kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s providing some choices with the flavour and other product as well. E. g. coco pops, crunchy nut nutty, all bran. etc. Consumer buying decision process First of all in buying this process ther are different stages with the decision so first step is total set when u got lots of things infront of you then you recognise awareness, then consideration set after that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get some selected things to choice in the choice set then can make your decision. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy is clear and focused: * to grow the cereal business there are now 40 different cereals * to expand the snack business by diversifying into convenience foods * to engage in specific growth opportunities. Production Cornflakes are produced in significant quantities at the Trafford Park factory in Manchester, which is also the largest cereal factory in the world. Cereals derived from cornflakes A former patient of the Battle Creek Sanitarium named C. W. Post started a rival company, as we all as the major other brand of corn flakes in the United States, called Post westies. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Sanitarium also manufactures their own brand of corn flakes called Skippy corn flakes. In addition there are many generic brands of corn flakes produced by various manufacturers. ttp://www. kelloggs. co. uk/products/cornflakes/Cereal/corn_flakes. aspx KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment At KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s they are committed to building great brands. they follow shared values, principles and behaviour to provide high quality and great tasting foods in a responsible manner: * They act with integrity and show respect. * They are all accountable. * They are passionate about they business, they brands and they food. * T hey have the humility and hunger to learn. * They love success. * They strive for simplicity. Kellogg Company has a rich history of corporate social responsibility, a history that has grown and evolved to meet the complexities of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world and the challenges of a global society. They founder, W. K. Kellogg, sought to Ã¢â¬Å"invest my money in peopleÃ¢â¬ . That legacy continues to guide they company and they people. Corporate responsibility is a way of life at Kellogg. They responsibilities include: * Sustainability Ã¢â¬â Understanding, managing and minimising they impact on the environment to a sustainable future for everyone. * Communities Ã¢â¬â Investing in and enriching they communities so that they can reach their full potential. They are passionate about their business, there brands and there food. * Market place Ã¢â¬â Behaving responsibly in the market place, selling nutritious products, advocating healthy lifestyles and acting with integrity and adhering to the highest ethical standards. * Work place Ã¢â¬â Promoting diversity in their work force and ensuring a safe, healthy workplace. They commitment to social responsibility is as strong today as it was when there company was founded. They are proud of their progress, but there is still much they can do. Diversity They aim is that diversity in KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is something you can feel, see and hear Ã¢â¬â it is not just a page in the annual report. Instead diversity hits you when you walk through the door. They actively encour age individuals to be themselves and use all of their talents to contribute their best each day for the benefit of themselves, others and KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. They desire is for a diverse and inclusive workforce regardless of; language, nationality, work-style, learning style, culture, ethnicity, job level, gender, sexual orientation, life experiences, skills, physical abilities, thinking style and marital or family status. Environment They are committed to operating a sustainable business that increases shareowner value and ensures a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. Sustainability has always been an integral part of KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s recipe for success and it will continue to be in the years to come. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s promotes and maintains environmentally responsible practices for the benefit of there customers, consumers, employees, and the communities in which they operate. They conduct and grow there business in a manner that protects the environment and demonstrates good stewardship of there worldAs natural restheyces. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s strives for continual improvement through the development of specific programs that address the environmental cost and impact of there activities, products and services. These programs include a commitment to use resources efficiently, minimise waste, and measure environmental impact Responsible marketing Since its foundation, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has been committed to informing consumers of all ages about the importance of a balanced approach to diet and physical activity. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has in place a global marketing code and a longstanding commitment to TV advertising in a responsible manner. This means: They will not encourage over-consumption. They will not use words like Ã¢â¬Ëking-sizeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ësuper-sizeÃ¢â¬â¢ and all there promotions will depict sensible portion sizes. * They will always present KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s breakfast cereals as part of a balanced breakfast Ã¢â¬â usually in a family context. * They will run balanced promotional calendars Ã¢ â¬â featuring a good mix of fun, education and overallbeing-based activities for both adults and children. * They will not target any advertising at children under six years of age. Work / life balance Creating a work environment which allows the business to deliver consistently strong results is essential to there future. Helping to create a good work / life balance is an essential part of this. Some of the initiatives run by KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s include: * Flexitime, home-working, part-time working and job share. * Career breaks, parental leave, time off for dependants and maternity and paternity leave. * Personal development planning, secondments and study leave. * On site gyms, or subsidised access to local facilities, free annual lifestyle assessments in work time, a variety of physical exercise based programmes. Health and safety Employee safety is a value at KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. They are committed to providing a safe and healthy work environment and preventing accidents. Employees are accountable for observing the safety and health rules and practices that apply to their jobs. They are expected to take precautions necessary to protect themselves and their co-workers, including immediately reporting accidents, injuries and unsafe practices or conditions. Employees also are expected to report to work free from the influence of any substance that could prevent or impair them from performing their jobs safely and effectively. Customer information processing Personality Personality is like , if you buy a branded company car so you make personality. when people buy a kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s they think about the image of kelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s in the market. so when customer buy a product they buy a brand. Perception Perception works in different way,e. g. we carrying clothes how people look at us, what brand you wearing. So, as the same way its depend on brand what you using. Perception is increases the prise of product. Learning is just not about academic learning but existing knowledge, our own knowledge. E. g. if i am going to buy break fast snack so i need to learn about product a to product b. We learn by application not ny remembering. Attitude from the environment and enfluence we create emotion how good or bad it like attitude. E. g. customer buying a brand to being part of group. Over a hundred years ago, the Kellogg brothers Ã¢â¬â Will Keith and John Harvey Ã¢â¬â devised a new breakfast in their quest for healthy foods. That breakfast was of course, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Corn Flakes Ã¢â¬ ¦ The Sunshine Breakfast! Crisp, golden flakes made from the finest sun-ripened corn. Since then generations of people have been waking up to enjoy the refreshing, simple taste of KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Corn Flakes and ice cold milk. Product details How to cite Kellogs Case Study, Free Case study samples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY 1: BROADBAND DISTRIBUTION OVER POWER LINE 1. THE BROADBAND OVER POWER LINE TECHNOLOGY 2. IMPACT AND BENEFITS OF BPL ON THE SOCIETY 1. Ready Made Infrastructure 2. Evolution of Consumer Electronics Internet Communications: 3. Evolution of Consumer Electronics Internet Communications: 4. Other Societal impacts: 5. POWER UTILITY APPLICATION 3. Broadband over Power Line: The Challenges 1. Boundary Creation, Security and Overall Reliability of BPL Technology 2. Imminent Large and Unmanageable Network. 3. Radio Frequency Interferences 4. Organizational Challenges 5. Economic Challenges 6. Rural and Remote Location Challenges 3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY 2: WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY 3. IMPACT AND BENEFIT OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION ON THE SOCIETY 4. EFFECTS AND CONSIDERATIONS OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY 3. CONCLUSION 5. REFERENCES CHAPETER ONE INTRODUCTION The two major technologies that have affected the human existence more than any other are Electricity and Communication technologies. All activities including businesses in modern society have become almost completely dependent on the sustainable supply of electric power and communication. We will write a custom essay sample on Review of Two Emerging Technologies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is no longer a real mission critical systems, but also normal life functions that suffer heavily in case of interruption. Many of third world and developing countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ stunted economic growth have been attributed to the lack or inconsistent nature of power supply and communication infrastructure. The UK Parliamentary Post note of March 2006, reported that access to consistent power supply and Information and communication technology (ICT) will play a major role in bringing out developing countries out of depressing state of extreme poverty and tackle a wide incidences of health, socioeconomic problems in the process of meeting the seven Millennium Development Goals such as attainment of the universal primary education and global partnership. The paper will therefore focus on these two technologies, exploring the emerging technologies in the field of Information and Communication technologies distribution and Electric power transmission. These are 1. Broadband distribution over power line 2. Wireless electricity transmission These technologies development are aimed at easing the day to day life of users of these technologies. Chapter Two, explores the possibilities of broadband distribution over power line focusing on the technology, the impact on the society and the challenges before nationwide implementation of the technology. Chapter three explores the emergency of transmission of electricity wirelessly to eliminate the use of wires. The technology is described including the benefits it could bring to the society. Concerns over possible hazards in commercial implementation were also discussed. Chapter four is the summary and conclusion of the work done while Chapter five have the references used in the work. CHAPTER 2 BROADBAND DISTRIBUTION OVER POWER LINE Broadband and the Internet are a viable tools in human day to day activity nd its fast becoming invisible and ubiquitous that no one is think or consider its social effects any more than electricity is at this current age or how national social and economic development hinged on it. Even though there is low or no access for rural dwellers, there is a geometric increase in numbers of internet users within the urban community; the demand for easy, fast and cost effective distribution is needed. Many services providers have been rolling out fibre optics ca bles to homes. Virgin Media and British telecom are in forefront of deployment of these cables in the UK. However, the primary focus of these service providers will be on high-density, urban areas which would translate to about only 60% of the United Kingdom population having access to the new broadband via fibre services. Report from 2010 statistics report reveals that Ã¢â¬Å"over thirty million UK adults have broadband/internet access on daily basis. This is a significant improvement over 2006 estimates which recorded over sixteen million UK adults accessing the internet on daily basisÃ¢â¬ . (http://www. statistics. gov. uk/cci/nugget. asp? id=8). Other varieties of technologies employed by Broadband/Internet Service Providers (BISPs) to extend services to the consumers are Direct Subscriber Line (DSL), Hybrid Fiber-cable (HFC), radio networked fixed wireless communications and satellites antennas. 2. 1 The Broadband over Power Line Technology The technology is based on the phenomenon and ideal transmission of electricity at a lower frequency than broadband signals; hence both electricity and broadband data can be channelled on the same power cable network without either interfering with each other. This offers an idea of economical and cheap way of distributing broadband over existing electric power infrastructure translating into competitive price with other forms of broadband distribution. There is also an attractive appeal of letting consumer plug low cost modems into any standard power outlet and connected to the internet real time. The current robust Power lines infrastructure makes it an attractive medium for broadband delivery because its extensive network reaches more homes than coaxial cables as well as DSL this will foster rapid growth to access to the internet especially rural areas. This method of distributing internet have been tested and deployed for home electronic networking and power modems are commercially manufactured by electronics vendors such as DLink modems, Linksys modems, Netgear routers, and Phone-flever modems. (http://www. powerlinenetworking. co. uk/content/view/13/28/). These devices can only support network data transfer which extends just a few hundred feet while current research is on-going on how to make it commercially available over a longer distance. Description of how this technology works is explained below: A Medium Voltage Node supplies data coming from the Broadband/Internet service providers into a medium voltage power line at a substation. The substation precedes a power plant. The injected data then travels over the electric grid to the final consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ power socket. Different frequency bands is employed in sending data via the Low Voltage lines where an installed repeater generates data signals on the Low Voltage lines within the home units. Finally, the consumer connects the electronic equipment which has been designed for self-installation, to any standard electric power socket to receive the broadband signals. [pic] FIGURE 1: Broadband over Power line technology 2. IMPACT AND BENEFITS OF BPL ON THE SOCIETY 1. Ready Made Infrastructure The most important feature of the Broadband over Power Line (BPL) is the already established infrastructure. Therefore, it will not require a build out investment identified with installations of fibre network or DSL upgrades. In the UK, every homes and businesses have access to the electricity utility grid, and most rural and unmanned remote areas are also reached. 2. Evolution of Consumer Electronics Internet Communications: This emerging technology will give rise to the evolution of internet compatibility appliances with most electrical and electronic equipment benefiting from connections to the internet. A typical example is consumer can switch on and switch off electrical appliances by mere logging on to it via the internet from anywhere in the world. Other public devices such as vending machines, industrial equipment, security systems and cameras will benefit from this emergence of electronics Internet communications. 3. Home Networking Home networking is enhanced. There is a seamless transfer of information between electronics and data sharing from every room. A typical example is a DVD get plugged into a power socket it detects and communicate automatically with Television, Home theatre system and other related devices while every TV in all the room can link and watch same movie been watched on the DVD. Ã¢â¬Å"HomePlug AV White Paper,Ã¢â¬ August 18, 2005 ) 4. Other Societal impacts: Video Conferencing: Electronics consumers will have a simplified way of interacting via a simultaneous the two way video and audio transmissions. Voice-Over-IP: This is another area of internet communication technologies that might be revolutionized, delivering voice communication to the general public over the internet protocol. Enhanced web-bas ed government services: Government services are closer to the citizens with ease of access to internet by more people. 5. POWER UTILITY APPLICATION Utility applications that will benefit from eventual take off of this technology are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Automated Power Meter Reading (APMR). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Power Demand Forecasting. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Analysis and modelling of distribution transformer overload. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Power Line analysis and testing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Microwave system replacement Ã¢â¬ ¢ Power outage and fault localization Ã¢â¬ ¢ Detecting Phase loss Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enhanced monitoring of Power fluctuations and quality 3. Broadband over Power Line: The Challenges With all certainty BPL technology is a realistic and workable solution to broadband distribution. The technology have been tested and successfully proven in controlled environment, metropolitan trials and small pilot projects. (Lee, M. K. , 2003). However, the concern has been on whether Broadband over Power Line will effectively operate as a means to distribute economically and reliably internet/broadband services to users, with particular focus on remote and rural locations. The BPL as an emerging technology faces several critical but solvable challenges to ensure its survival as a competitive Internet Service Providing technology. . Boundary Creation, Security and Overall Reliability of BPL Technology In the UK as well as several other countries of the world, it is common to see apartments and other close knitted buildings sharing the same power lines, hence signals and data transfer in a home network can cross boundaries of properties. Typical example is a DVD player plugged into power socket need to be able to connect to the specific home network rather than neighboursÃ¢â¬â ¢ network. More and other boundaries might also exist at even a finer granularity. For instance, tenants occupying a shared flat may decide to individual network, or parents want a distinct and restricted access to the general network by the children. Hence, BPL technology needs to be able to support multiple virtual networks. (W. David Gardner, 2005) Using encryption and cryptography initiatives such as trusted computing could be used in securing the network (Authentication Framework, 1988). However, the target consumer electronic products such as DVDs, TVs, home theatre systems etc do not have encryption capabilities. For consumer products with encryption capabilities, the equipment are designed to have certificate which transmit the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s authorisation, when the desired application is user authorisation. Hence, for this issue to be overcome, electronic products have to be designed to be compatible with this technology. 2. Imminent Large and Unmanageable Network. Power line network will no doubt be very large and may become unmanageably large exposing consumers, financial and government secured systems to hackers. This security threats possess a big setback to commercial and business deployment of the BPL technology. . Radio Frequency Interferences BPL is a shared bandwidth technology hence there are likely hood for radio frequency interferences between the BPL electronic equipment and other uses of the spectrum or vice versa. (Seema M. 2008) Acceptable speed might not be achievable in densely populated regions as there might be limited or very little bandwidth to carter for all br oadband subscribers. (Allen J. Wood, 2004) 4. Organizational Challenges The BPL technology faces organizational challenges for electric utilities who might consider partnering to in broadband distribution services: 1. None Interoperability of BPL equipment hence if a particular manufacturer goes out of business or for whatever reason is no longer available, problem of continuity and cross compatibility sets in. 2. Broadband over Power Line (BPL) as with all telecommunications systems requires structured planning, management, operation and maintenance as a network. These structures are totally different in competencies and capabilities of what is obtainable in the monopolistic nature of electric power systems. (Fink, D. 2008). A bottle neck of finding a balance between acceptable standard between the two giants possess a challenge. . Similarly, the merging vision, values and culture of a telecommunication service provider and electric power company in event of partnership are important factor to be considered to ensure the overall success of the business. 5. Economic Challenges Economic issues are perhaps the most challenging issue facing the BPL technology and some are highlighted below; 1. Uncert ainty with manufacturers been able to make BPL compatible equipment that ensures competitive pricing when compared with other forms of broadband distribution services. . Uncertainty in penetration into the market by the service providers to justify profitable manufacturing scale as well as support while considering financial sustainability from investment to returns on the investments. 3. Uncertainty in BPL competitiveness with other broadband transmission technologies. BPL will probably be profitable venture in populated areas where other existing broadband services such as Fiber and DSL are not available. These issues are interrelated with its success depending on wide deployment and vice versa. . Rural and Remote Location Challenges Rural and remote locations are supposed to be the greatest beneficiary to this technology however economic issues are more compounded. The human settlements are sparsely distributed hence electric cables line are longer and father apart. BPL distribut ion structure then becomes more complex as devices such repeaters, voltage regulator, shunt capacitor etc have to be installed. Prices of distribution will also considerable are higher as one user is served by individual transformer. BPL will not economically feasible for remote transmission when settlers have less than 20 users within a mile. (Fink, D. 2008). CHAPTER THREE WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 1. Introduction The invention of electricity and subsequent usage to light up a bulb prompted long debates on suitable ways to have it distribute it for the benefit of the people as well as profit on the rising business venture. (Power Engineering Review, IEEE). Notable of the inventors was Nikola Tesla who had an idea and researched how electricity can be transmitted wirelessly. Tesla believes a time will come when wired infrastructure will get to complex in electricity distribution that hence he supports for wireless transmission of electricity. Tesla made plans and built a 57 meter tower, from where electricity will be beamed to long distances. However, his research was cut short due to lack of funds to complete the projects and investors are not willing to gamble into such inventions. (Carlson, W. B 2007) Until 2007, scientists in MIT had a breakthrough in the principle of wireless energy transmission, and carried out a middle distance wireless energy transmission where its efficiency was about 40%. Andre Kurs et al 2007). The current revisit to the Nikola Tesla works no wireless power transmission is set to revolutionize the power industry. Even though TeslaÃ¢â¬â¢s idea was to distribute electricity over wide distances, the technology been developed now focuses on local and short ranged distribution, thereby eliminating the use of wires as we have it p resently. A typical usage of the technology will be recharging of consumer electronics that uses battery without necessarily connecting to power sockets. Hence, laptop can be used anywhere in the home and have it battery recharged without plugging it to the main power source or a mobile phone automatically gets charged when user step into the house or the battery is low. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY The Wireless Transmission technology is based on a physics phenomenon called Resonance Coupling where tuned objects on the same frequency transfers strong energy but have less or no interaction with other objects on different frequency. (Wenzhen Fu et al, 2008). It is an ideal medium for energy exchange because there is free movement of magnetic fields in air while it has less effect on the surroundings and humans at regulated frequency. Two coils resonating at equal frequencies are able to create a powerful magnetic coupling frequency and inter- transfer energy in an efficient manner, while the magnetic coupling have a weak effect on other objects which has different resonance frequency. This physical phenomenon can be adapted to transmit power to electric equipment wirelessly over some certain distance. Chunbo Zhu, 2008). In demonstration of this phenomenon, the researchers constructed two resonant copper coils positioned about two meters apart. The next stage in the demonstration involved one of the coils getting charged by allowing an alternating current to flow through it, generating a magnetic field. The second coil positioned two meters away was tuned to equal frequency and a electric bulb was hooked to it. With a resonated magnetic f ield electricity is generated in the second coil which lit up the bulb. (Marin Soljacic, 2007). 3. IMPACT AND BENEFIT OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION ON THE SOCIETY Contactless energy transfer has become a major issue in modern automation scenarios, as it offers reduced installation efforts, more flexibility and movability together with an elimination of wear and tear of supply cables. Current research focuses on an inductive power supply of a single load over a possibly large distance [R. Mecke, 2004]. This technology provides ease of mobility to users as chargeable batteries, electrical and electronics equipment can be moved around easily within the magnetic wireless range. This comes with neat and wireless Installation. There is less cost for wiring infrastructure for devices and it will support unlimited users who have limited slot for charging purposes of mobile installations and vehicles [Esser A, 1999]. 3. 4 EFFECTS AND CONSIDERATIONS OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY This technology of wireless power transfer is still in developing state even though companies like Wild-Charge have started rolling out a gadget capable of charging mobile equipment wirelessly. (http://www. wildcharge. com/). However the following needs to be addressed and might discourage the future commercialization of the product. 1. It is not enough for consumer to achieve the ease of having less connection wires, installation etc but power consumption and efficiency need to be put into consideration. At current 40% to 50% of the technology, (Andre Kurs et al 2007), it translates that more than twice as much power is required. Consumer power consumption bills will rise considerably. Consumers will likely not pay more to recharge mobile device wirelessly. . Electronic gadget and equipment intended to be powered wirelessly have to re-design to incorporate this technology. It creates more complexity in the electronic equipment while eliminating the cords and wires. 3. Unlike wireless data transfer where security can be implemented to prevent unauthorised access, a bottle neck restriction problem is likely to happen. For instance, an outsider simply needs to get close enough within the perimeter of wirele ss power base station to make use of the electricity supply. 4. Current research suggests that the Electromagnetic radiation from the devices do not have significant effect on human bodies, however, a longer effect of continuous exposure to the radiation might be adverse. Scientist have known that this radiation might cause human biological damage through heating effects since human body is made up of approximately 65-70% water, electrolytes and ions. Radio frequency radiation emitted from mobile phone will interact with human body and interfere with human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s natural healing resulted displacement of electrolytes and ions within the body. Mat, D. A. A, 2010) CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION Broadband and Electricity transmission has discussed in work still have huddles to overcome before it can be commercially available. Broadband Internet access is important and highly sort after for enhanced standard of living and productive future of businesses. The emerging Broad band over Power Line technologies may be the key to a improved and sustainable broadband sector. There are organisational and economic challenges for the information and communication technology industry and electric power companies to overcome. For instance, none of the electronics equipment manufacturers have BPL enable electronics in full production and uncertainty still remain on how soon manufacturers will successfully design, and produce electronic of good quality, acceptable durability, cheap and affordable. The effect of nature such as extremely high or extremely low temperatures, thunderbolts, rain and humidity will also considerable effect on electronics. These natural challenges can be overcome with careful design and high standard production of BPL compatible electronics. With the drive for a greener environment and combat against global warming, long term continuous generation of electromagnetic waves by thousands households using a widespread wireless power transmission technology could have a catastrophic result with billions of tons of Carbon (IV) oxide (CO2) been emitted into the atmosphere annually. Hence, the global drive for a safe environment and saving our planet earth might be forfeited in process of creating ease of transferring power wirelessly. Advance technologies bring a lot of benefits to humans however we have to be careful of the adverse effects that might come with and this must be addressed from start of their emergence. CHAPTER FIVE REFERENCES 1. TELECOMMUNICATIONS CHALLENGES FOR NIGERIA IN THE 21st CENTURY Engr. Ernest C. A. Ndukwe Accessed at http://www. ncc. gov. ng/speeches_presentations/EVC%27s%20Presentation/nici_programmeEVCspeech. pdf 2. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Ã¢â¬Å"ICT in developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ PostNote March 2006 Number 261 3. [pic]Allen J.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
What You Need To Know About Cinco de Mayo in English and Spanish Ã ¿QuÃ © es el Cinco de Mayo? What is Cinco de Mayo? This bilingual feature has been written with classroom use in mind - a grammar guide at the end provides useful tips for Spanish students. En espaol: Los orgenes del Cinco de Mayo Muchos creen que el cinco de mayo es el aniversario de la independencia mexicana. Pero no tienen razÃ ³n - el dÃ a de independencia en MÃ ©xico es el 16 de septiembre. Para familiarizarse con los orÃ genes de la celebraciÃ ³n, es necesario estudiar los sucesos a mediados del siglo diecinueve. DespuÃ ©s de la Guerra Mexicana Americana, MÃ ©xico enfrentaba una crisis econÃ ³mica. En 1861, Benito Jurez, el presidente mexicano, declarÃ ³ que MÃ ©xico aplazarÃ a por dos aÃ ±os los pagos de deudas exteriores. Aunque Jurez hubo dicho que se reanudarÃ an los pagos en 1863, la promesa no satisfizo a Gran BretaÃ ±a, Francia y EspaÃ ±a. Se ablandaban Gran BretaÃ ±a y EspaÃ ±a, pero Francia insistiÃ ³ en obtener su dinero por la fuerza. NapoleÃ ³n III, emperador de los franceses, nombrÃ ³ un pariente, archiduque Maximillian de Austria, el lÃ der de MÃ ©xico. Mientras marchaba hacia la Ciudad de MÃ ©xico, el ejÃ ©rcito francÃ ©s enfrentaba resistencia tenaz. El 5 de mayo, 1862, el general Ignacio Zaragoza y su ejÃ ©rcito mexicano vencieron el ejÃ ©rcito francÃ ©s en la batalla de Puebla. La victoria mexicana era una sorpresa porque el ejÃ ©rcito francÃ ©s era ms grande y tenÃ a materiales superiores. SegÃ ºnÃ un refrn inglÃ ©s, es posible ganar la batalla y perder la guerra. Los franceses ganaron otras batallas, y Maximillian se hizo lÃ der en 1864. Pero los franceses, enfrentando resistencia mexicana y presiÃ ³n de los Estados Unidos, retiraron las tropas en 1867. El Cinco de Mayo es un dÃ a para conmemorar el coraje de los luchadores contra la opresiÃ ³n. Quizs por eso este dÃ a de fiesta es muy popular dondequiera haya personas de ascendencia mexicana. Por ejemplo, la fiesta hoy dÃ a es muy popular en Estados Unidos, donde viven muchas persons con antepasados de MÃ ©xico. In English: Origins of Mexicos Cinco de Mayo Many people believe that May 5 is the anniversary of the Mexican Independence. But theyre mistaken, for the Mexican Independence Day is September 16. To understand the origins of the celebration, you need to go back to the middle of the 19th century. After the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, Mexico was in a fiscal crisis. In 1861 Mexican President Benito Jurez declared that Mexico was suspending payment on all its foreign debt for two years. Even though Jurez had said payments would resume in 1863, Great Britain, France and Spain were not satisfied. Although the British and Spanish-backed off, France insisted on using force to secure its debt payments. French Emperor Napoleon III named a relative of his, Archduke Maximillian of Austria, as ruler of Mexico. As it was marching toward Mexico City, the French Army encountered stiff resistance. On May 5, 1862, General Ignacio Zaragoza defeated the French Army in the Battle of Puebla. The Mexican victory was a surprise, for the French Army was larger and better equipped. There is a saying that its possible to win the battle and lose the war. The French won other battles, and Maximillian became the ruler in 1864. But facing Mexican resistance and American pressure, the French withdrew their troops in 1867. Cinco de Mayo is a time to recognize the bravery of those who fight against oppression. Perhaps that is why this holiday is popular wherever there are people of Mexican descent. For example, the fiesta these days is very popular in the United States, where many people who have Mexican ancestors live. Grammatical Highlights Differences in uses of the two simple past tenses of Spanish can be seen in the article. In general, the preterite is used here in referring to ordinary events (such as with ganaron for the winning of battles), the imperfect is used to provide background, such as in the use of tenÃ anÃ materiales (literally had materiel). Names of the months typically arent capitalized in Spanish. The name of the holiday is, however. Adjectives such as mexicana and francÃ ©s derived from names of countries also arent capitalized, nor are most titles such as archiduque. Note how reflexive verbs such as familiarizarse and reanudarse (in the form se reanudarÃ an) are used. Alhough the two verbs could be translated literally in this context as to famliiarize oneself and to resume themselves, such a translation would be awkward. In the third paragraph, a comma is used after France in English but not after Francia in Spanish. That is because Spanish does not use the Oxford comma before the y (and) in a series of words.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Calcite and Aragonite in Earth's Carbon Cycle You may think of carbon as an element that on Earth is found mainly in living things (that is, in organic matter) or in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Both of those geochemical reservoirs are important, of course, but the vast majority of carbon is locked up in carbonate minerals. These are led by calcium carbonate, which takes two mineral forms named calcite and aragonite. Calcium Carbonate Minerals in Rocks Aragonite and calcite have the same chemical formula, CaCO3, but their atoms are stacked in different configurations. That is, they are polymorphs. (Another example is the trio of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite.) Aragonite has an orthorhombic structure and calcite a trigonal structure. Our gallery of carbonate minerals covers the basics of both minerals from the rockhounds viewpoint: how to identify them, where theyre found, some of their peculiarities. Calcite is more stable in general than aragonite, although as temperatures and pressures change one of the two minerals may convert to the other. At surface conditions, aragonite spontaneously turns into calcite over geologic time, but at higher pressures aragonite, the denser of the two, is the preferred structure. High temperatures work in calcites favor. At surface pressure, aragonite cant endure temperatures above around 400Ã °C for long. High-pressure, low-temperature rocks of the blueschist metamorphic facies often contain veins of aragonite instead of calcite. The process of turning back to calcite is slow enough that aragonite can persist in a metastable state, similar to diamond. Sometimes a crystal of one mineral converts to the other mineral while preserving its original shape as a pseudomorph: it may look like a typical calcite knob or aragonite needle, but the petrographic microscope shows its true nature. Many geologists, for most purposes, dont need to know the correct polymorph and just talk about carbonate. Most of the time, the carbonate in rocks is calcite. Calcium Carbonate Minerals in Water Calcium carbonate chemistry is more complicated when it comes to understanding which polymorph will crystallize out of solution. This process is common in nature, because neither mineral is highly soluble, and the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in water pushes them toward precipitating. In water, CO2 exists in balance with the bicarbonate ion, HCO3, and carbonic acid, H2CO3, all of which are highly soluble. Changing the level of CO2 affects the levels of these other compounds, but the CaCO3 in the middle of this chemical chain pretty much has no choice but to precipitate as a mineral that cant dissolve quickly and return to the water. This one-way process is a major driver of the geological carbon cycle. Which arrangement the calcium ions (Ca2) and carbonate ions (CO32Ã¢â¬â) will choose as they join into CaCO3 depends on conditions in the water. In clean fresh water (and in the laboratory), calcite predominates, especially in cool water. Cavestone formations are generally calcite. Mineral cements in many limestones and other sedimentary rocks are generally calcite. The ocean is the most important habitat in the geological record, and calcium carbonate mineralization is an important part of oceanic life and marine geochemistry. Calcium carbonate comes directly out of solution to form mineral layers on the tiny round particles called ooids and to form the cement of seafloor mud. Which mineral crystallizes, calcite or aragonite, depends on the water chemistry. Seawater is full of ions that compete with calcium and carbonate. Magnesium (Mg2) clings to the calcite structure, slowing down the growth of calcite and forcing itself into calcites molecular structure, but it doesnt interfere with aragonite. Sulfate ion (SO4Ã¢â¬â) also suppresses calcite growth. Warmer water and a larger supply of dissolved carbonate favor aragonite by encouraging it to grow faster than calcite can. Calcite and Aragonite Seas These things matter to the living things that build their shells and structures out of calcium carbonate. Shellfish, including bivalves and brachiopods, are familiar examples. Their shells are not pure mineral, but intricate mixtures of microscopic carbonate crystals bound together with proteins. The one-celled animals and plants classified as plankton make their shells, or tests, the same way. Another important factor appears to be that algae benefit from making carbonate by ensuring themselves a ready supply of CO2 to help with photosynthesis. All of these creatures use enzymes to construct the mineral they prefer. Aragonite makes needlelike crystals whereas calcite makes blocky ones, but many species can make use of either. Many mollusk shells use aragonite on the inside and calcite on the outside. Whatever they do uses energy, and when ocean conditions favor one carbonate or the other, the shell-building process takes extra energy to work against the dictates of pure chemistry. This means that changing the chemistry of a lake or the ocean penalizes some species and advantages others. Over geologic time the ocean has shifted between aragonite seas and calcite seas. Today were in an aragonite sea that is high in magnesium- it favors the precipitation of aragonite plus calcite thats high in magnesium. A calcite sea, lower in magnesium, favors low-magnesium calcite. The secret is fresh seafloor basalt, whose minerals react with magnesium in seawater and pull it out of circulation. When plate tectonic activity is vigorous, we get calcite seas. When its slower and spreading zones are shorter, we get aragonite seas. Theres more to it than that, of course. The important thing is that the two different regimes exist, and the boundary between them is roughly when magnesium is twice as abundant as calcium in seawater. The Earth has had an aragonite sea since roughly 40 million years ago (40 Ma). The most recent previous aragonite sea period was between late Mississippian and early Jurassic time (about 330 to 180 Ma), and next going back in time was the latest Precambrian, before 550 Ma. In between these periods, Earth had calcite seas. More aragonite and calcite periods are being mapped out farther back in time. Its thought that over geologic time, these large-scale patterns have made a difference in the mix of organisms that built reefs in the sea. The things we learn about carbonate mineralization and its response to ocean chemistry are also important to know as we try to figure out how the sea will respond to human-caused changes in the atmosphere and climate.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Economic Theory of Capitalism - Essay Example It can be said that capitalism has had a huge impact on the sovereignty of the states, which have come to depend on it completely. It has, in fact, been said that it undermines state sovereignty because decisions that governments have to make have to put into consideration their impact on international affairs (Anderson 85). An example of this is oil-exporting countries, which heavily depend on the income from this product to fund their national budgets. Moreover, if these countries were to act in a way that displeases the international community, then they would be forced to abandon such decisions through the placing of sanctions on their exports by those countries, which import their oil (Hobson 64). Moreover, because of capitalism, many countries have economic interests in other countries. To protect these interests, it has become necessary for the power to meddle in the political affairs of the weaker ones. This has not only made the latter countries lose their sovereignty, but i t has also encouraged their overdependence on more developed nations for economic aid. In many countries, it has been found that economic power is disproportionately balanced so that a few hold most of the wealth while the rest only hold very little or none at all (Lenin 18). This has created a situation where individuals own the majority of the resources in the society and this has made the gap between the rich and the poor to widen. The rich become richer while the poor have continued to become poorer as the cost of living increases while their income has remained the same. The economic policies of many countries tend to be left in the hands of politicians, who make decisions about things or places they are unacquainted with, lack of adequate information about the framework to design effective and correct policies and programs to facilitate the development of their people. This has led many nations to pursue policies that are detrimental to the equal development of all their citiz ens, as they have tended to secure the status quo; namely, the rich being favored at the expense of the poor, who make up the majority of many societies the world over (Schumpeter 105). The potential for social chaos because of this, as propagated by Marx, is quite possible especially when one considers that the trickle effect policies propagated by capitalists do not seem to work. It is a fact that economic inequality is a reality among the majority of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population and this has come about mainly because of the fact that capitalist policies have become dominant. Despite this situation being rampant the world over, most of the people with the power to make a difference are either unwilling or unable to do so because they do not want to disturb the status quo as it is.